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One of the basic conditions for vital activity is the entry of nutrients into the body, continuously consumed by cells in the process of metabolism. For the body, the source of these substances is food. The digestive system provides the breakdown of nutrients to simple organic compounds (monomers), which enter the internal environment of the body and are used by cells and tissues as plastic and energetic material. In addition, the digestive system provides the body with the necessary amount of water and electrolytes.
The digestive system, or gastrointestinal tract, is a convoluted tube that begins at the mouth and ends at the anus. It also includes a number of organs that provide the secretion of digestive juices (salivary glands, liver, pancreas).
Digestion is a set of processes during which food is processed and the proteins, fats, carbohydrates are mixed into monomers in the gastrointestinal tract, and the monomers are subsequently absorbed into the body’s internal environment.