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Genetics is a science of heredity and variability of organism signs, methods of managing them and organizing hereditary material; a section of biology. Because of the universality of the genetic code, genetics is at the heart of the study of all forms of life from viruses to humans.
Genetic information – the existence in the cells of organisms of such collections of genes that store information about the sequence of metabolic processes during growth and reproduction, the composition, structure, and function of proteins and nucleic acids. The carrier of genetic information is nucleic acids: DNA and RNA.
The word “genetics” was first proposed to describe the knowledge of heredity and variability, a prominent British scientist William Bethson in a personal letter to Adam Sedgwick (April 18, 1905). For the first time, Bateson used the word “genetics” publicly at the Third International Conference on Plant Hybridization (London, England) in 1906.
The main task of genetics is to develop methods for managing heredity and variability in order to obtain the forms of organisms necessary for humanity, regulating the formation of their natural and artificial populations, studying the nature of genetic diseases, and solving the problems of resistance of natural and artificial populations of species.