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The urinary bladder is an unpaired hollow organ of the excretory system of vertebrates, located in the pelvis.
It acts as a urine reservoir from which it is expelled. In other words, it serves for the accumulation of urine flowing from the kidneys and its periodic elimination through the urethra, regulated by a detrusor.
The bladder is found in most vertebrates. Among fish, it is absent in cartilaginous.
There is a bladder in most modern amphibians (those belonging to the Tailless order) and in some of the reptiles (turtles and most of the lepidosaurs). In them, the ureters enter not into it, but into the cloaca, and the bladder opens into it, but with an independent opening. Crocodiles, snakes and some lizards have an underdeveloped organ, while birds do not have it.
On the contrary, mammals have this organ, and the ureters flow into it (except for one-pass ones: their ureters open into the urogenital sinus, and from it, urine enters the organ).
The human bladder is one, it is located in the pelvis behind the pubis behind the pubic symphysis. Depending on the amount of urine contained in it, the organ can stretch and contract. The bladder capacity is approximately 0.5 liters. According to other data, in men it is normally 350–750 ml, in women – 250–550 ml. A person feels the urge to urinate when the volume of urine in the organ reaches 150–200 ml; if the latter is filled quickly, then the urge to urinate follows more often, because, with the rapid stretching of the smooth muscles that form the bladder wall, there is a stronger irritation of the baroreceptors present in these muscles.