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The hair ais an integral part of the protective cover of mammals and their ancestors. Phylogenetic are derivatives of the epidermis of the skin. In animals, thick hair is called fur or wool.
The outer sheath of it is formed by overlapping keratin scales. The visible part of the hair is called the pivot. The part of it is under the skin is called the hair root (or hair follicle). The bulb is surrounded by a follicle of a hair follicle. The type of it depends on the shape of the follicle: straight hair grows from a round follicle, slightly curly – from oval, and curly – from a kidney-shaped.
It consists of three layers. The outer layer, or cuticle, has a protective function and is formed by thin cells like scales that overlap each other like roof tiles. When the cuticle scales lie tightly, gently overlapping, it is silky, soft and shiny. If the cuticle cells are physically or chemically damaged, the hair loses its luster, becomes brittle and easily confused.
Under the cuticle is a cortex – a cortex, consisting of elongated dead cells that give the hair strength and elasticity. The cortex contains the melanin pigment, which determines the natural hair color. In the center of each hair, there is a medulla, it consists of soft keratin cells and air cavities. The purpose of this layer is unknown, but it is assumed that it receives nutrients to the cortex and cuticle. This can explain the rapid change in it with the disease.