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The kidney is a paired bean-shaped organ that, by means of the function of urine formation, regulates the chemical homeostasis of the organism. Included in the system of the urinary organs (urinary system) in vertebrate animals, including humans.
In humans, the kidneys are located behind the parietal leaf of the peritoneum in the lumbar region on the sides of the last two thoracics and two first lumbar vertebrae. Adjacent to the posterior abdominal wall in the projection of the 11th – 12th thoracic –– 1–2nd lumbar vertebrae, with the right kidney normally located slightly lower, since it is bordered from above by the liver (in an adult, the upper pole of the right kidney usually reaches the 12th intercostal space, the upper pole of the left – the level of the 11th rib). (In the so-called “mirror people”, the left kidney is somewhat lower, since their liver is located on the left, and the left kidney borders on the liver, respectively.)
Each kidney is covered with a durable connective tissue fibrous capsule and consists of a parenchyma and a system of accumulation and excretion of urine. The kidney capsule is a tight connective tissue sheath that covers the outside of the kidney. The parenchyma of the kidney is represented by the outer layer of the cortical substance and the inner layer of the medulla, which constitute the inner part of the organ. The urine accumulation system is represented by small renal cups (6-12), which, merging between themselves by 2-3, form a large renal calyx (2-4), which, merging, form the renal pelvis.