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The skin consists of the epidermis, dermis and subcutaneous fat (hypodermis).
Epidermis or Peel includes five layers of epidermal cells. The lowermost layer – the basal – is located on the basement membrane and is the 1st row of the prismatic epithelium. Immediately above it is a spinous layer (3-8 rows of cells with cytoplasmic outgrowths), followed by a granular layer (1-5 rows of flattened cells), brilliant (2-4 rows of nuclear-free cells, distinguishable on the palms and soles) and the horny layer consisting from stratified keratinizing epithelium. The epidermis also contains melanin, which stains the skin and causes a tanning effect.
The dermis is a connective tissue and consists of 2 layers – the papillary layer, on which numerous outgrowths are located, containing the capillary loops and nerve terminals, and the reticular layer containing blood and lymphatic vessels, nerve endings, hair follicles, glands, and also elastic, collagen and smooth muscle fibers, giving the skin strength and elasticity.
Subcutaneous fatty tissue consists of bundles of connective tissue and fat accumulations, permeated with blood vessels and nerve fibers. The physiological function of adipose tissue is the accumulation and storage of nutrients. In addition, it serves for thermoregulation and additional protection of internal organs.
In addition to the skin itself, the body has its anatomical derivatives – formations that develop from the skin and its buds. Various secretions of glands located in the skin are also part of the body’s outer skin.