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The elevator (English to lift – to lift) – the kind of the load-lifting car intended for vertical or inclined movement of loads on the special platforms moving on rigid guides.
For the first time, a Roman architect Vitruvius wrote about the elevator, referring, in turn, to Archimedes, who built a lifting device, probably as early as 236 BC. er
Later references to elevators date back to the mid-6th century (elevators of the Monastery of St. Catherine in Egypt), the first quarter of the 18th century (in France), and the 17th century (Windsor Castle elevator in the UK, Flying Chair by Welayer in a Paris palace). In the 18th century, passenger elevators began to be used in the Russian Empire (elevators of the palace buildings of Tsarskoye Selo, the Kuskovo estate near Moscow, lifting tables and a chair in the Petrodvorets Hermitage).
In 1854, E. G. Otis demonstrated his safety device – catchers – at the Crystal Palace at an exhibition in New York. Otis stopped at the open platform of the elevator and chopped off the rope holding it with an ax. At the same time, the platform remained in place and did not fall into the mine thanks to catchers. Otis security device in combination with the use of steel frames of buildings made it possible to build skyscrapers.