High detail building model with Vray and multi layer phososhop PSD file.
Prior to World War II, modern architecture was largely concerned with planar effects of volume and transparency. Using smooth surfaces of white stucco and large areas of glass, it created an image characteristically light, airy, and cheerful. But by the early thirties, this idiom was already felt to be too limited. Its range was broadened by the introduction of natural materials, like the stone wall in Le Corbusier's Pavilion Suisse, and by effects of rusticity contrasted with the elegance of new, technically refined materials.
By 1946 the balance had changed. Le Corbusier's postwar work, particularly the Marseilles apartment house, the Jaoul houses, and the chapel at Ronchamp, led the way toward a new preoccupation with mass, weight, rough textures, and deliberately crude workmanship. Where light and transparency had once been associated with physical and mental health, the new ponderousness was accompanied by no formal justification but was understood to be of emotional resonance in keeping with the age of anxiety.
' In Europe and England, the style recalled wartime German fortifications like those on the English Channel and often echoed the bizarre contrasts of scale produced by such sinister apparitions as Friedrich Tamms' antiaircraft towers in Vienna. This style was applied with equal enthusiasm to museums, theaters, housing, schools— to virtually everything except factories, which continued to be built in less cumbersome ways.
Brutalism, as the style has been called, is an aggressive form not necessarily dependent on exposed concrete (Le Corbusier's beton brut). Its spirit has influenced the use of other materials in less dynamic ways of building. American versions are relatively calm and tend to the impersonal smoothness of minimal or primary form sculpture.
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