The classical tradition re-emerged as an important force in Canadian architecture at the turn of the century as a reaction to the picturesque styles of the 19th century. While the revival was based upon the classical forms of ancient Greece and Rome, the intermediate sources and shades of the style were mixed. In its simplest form it is referred to as Neo-Classical and usually follows simple Greek architecture. Beaux-Arts Classicism is named after the Parisian architecture school Ecole des beaux-arts and was very popular in the United States. The Ecole encouraged designs of a grand nature with a formal and clearly structured arrangement of parts. Edwardian or English Baroque was very popular in Great Britain and was a freer, more inventive reworking of the architecture of the 16th century Renaissance and 17th century Baroque Italy, both of which borrowed heavily from classical Greek and Roman architecture. In many buildings, these three influences were merged.
All classical revival buildings share a common vocabulary of columns, capitals, pediments, and Greek or Roman ornaments. Neo-Classical buildings usually use the Greek orders (an arrangement of columns with an entablature: Doric, Ionic, and Corinthian are the principal orders) , designs are usually simple and symmetrical with monumental proportions and smooth surfaces , pedimented porticos are common ,roof lines are flat and unadorned , door and window openings are installed (horizontal at top) rather than arched (round-topped)
Beaux-Arts buildings are large with a grand arrangement of parts and have lively and varied details. The Roman orders (Tuscan and Composite) are used in addition to the Greek orders, both arched and lintelled window and door openings are used, in large buildings, the façade has advancing and receding parts, often with a projecting section, with colossal orders extending the height of the building and usually grouped in pairs; rich mouldings and free-standing statues on the roofline are common
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