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The integumentary system is a complex of types of epithelial tissue, elements of muscular, connective and nervous tissues concentrated on the surface of the body. It protects the body from drying out, temperature fluctuations, damage, penetration of poisonous substances and pathogens into the body. Also, in a large number of small, mostly invertebrates, aquatic animals or animals living in humid environments. The system is responsible for breathing. This system is the largest organ system in size.
The skin is the largest organ in the body of an animal, for example, in humans, its area is about 1.7 m². The skin consists of three layers: the epidermis (outer layer), the dermis, and the subcutaneous fatty tissue of the hypodermis.
The epidermis includes five layers of epidermal cells. The lowermost layer – the basal – is located on the basement membrane and is the 1st row of the prismatic epithelium. Immediately above it is a spinous layer (3-8 rows of cells with cytoplasmic outgrowths). It followed by a granular layer (1-5 rows of flattened cells), brilliant (2-4 rows of nuclear-free cells, distinguishable on the palms and soles). The horny layer consisting from the stratified keratinizing epithelium. The epidermis also contains melanin, which stains the skin and causes a tanning effect.
The dermis, or the skin itself, is a connective tissue and consists of 2 layers – the papillary layer, on which numerous outgrowths are located. Containing capillary loops and nerve endings, and the reticular layer containing blood and lymphatic vessels, nerve endings, follicles hair, glands, as well as elastic, collagen and smooth muscle fibers, giving the skin strength and elasticity.
Subcutaneous fatty tissue consists of bundles of connective tissue and fat accumulations, permeated with blood vessels and nerve fibers. The physiological function of adipose tissue is the accumulation and storage of nutrients. In addition, it serves for thermoregulation and additional protection of the genitals.
In addition to the skin itself, the body has its anatomical derivatives – formations that develop from the skin and its buds. Various secretions of glands located in the skin are also part of the body’s outer skin.