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The Liver – a vital gland of external secretion of vertebrate animals, including man, located in the abdominal cavity (abdominal cavity) under the diaphragm and performing a large number of different physiological functions. The organ is the largest vertebrate gland.
The liver consists of two lobes: right and left. In the right lobe, there are two more secondary lobes: square and caudate. According to the modern segmental scheme proposed by Claude Quino (1957), the organ is divided into eight segments, forming the right and left lobes. The liver segment is a pyramidal segment of the hepatic parenchyma, which has a sufficiently isolated blood supply, innervation, and outflow of bile. Tailed and quadrate lobes, located behind and in front of the gates of it, according to this scheme correspond SI and SIV of the left lobe. In addition, in the left lobe, there are SII and SIII livers, the right lobe is divided into SV – SVIII, numbered around the gate of the organ in the clockwise direction.
The characteristics of the blood supply to the liver reflect its important biological detoxification function: blood from the intestines containing toxic substances consumed from the outside, as well as the metabolic products of microorganisms (skatole, indole, etc.) are delivered to the liver via the portal vein (v. Portae). Next, the portal vein is divided into smaller interlobular veins. Arterial blood enters the organ through its own hepatic artery (a. Hepatica propria), branching to the interlobular arteries. The interlobular arteries and veins emit blood into the sinusoids, where, thus, mixed blood flows, the drainage of which occurs in the central vein. The central veins are collected in the hepatic veins and further into the inferior vena cava. In embryogenesis to the liver approaches the so-called. Arancia duct carrying blood to the organ for effective prenatal hematopoiesis.