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Excavator – the main type of earthmoving machines equipped with a bucket. The main purpose is the development of soils (rocks, minerals) and loading of bulk materials.
The main difference of the single-bucket excavator from other earth-moving machines is that the excavation of the soil is performed by a movable working body with a fixed chassis. Rotation of the bucket for unloading is also performed when the machine is standing. Multi-bucket excavators can move during soil collection (trenchers, for example), but buckets necessarily move separately from the chassis.
Excavators are used during construction and demolition of residential buildings, road construction, as well as in quarries and mines.
Structurally, excavators consist of working (usually replaceable), undercarriage (chassis) and power equipment. The workplace of the excavator, working bucket, called the face. A special feature of excavators is a wide range of interchangeable equipment – not only different buckets but also booms, handles, pile masts, as well as the actual working tools: excavation buckets, loading, clamshell two- and multi-maxillaries, rippers, hooks.
Excavators on the basis of work:
– Cyclic excavators (single-bucket): single-bucket excavator (in the direction of the excavator bucket tooth); work equipment: dragline, a front shovel, backhoe, grab;
– Excavators continuous (trench, rotor, and others);
– Vacuum and vacuum-suction excavators (for example, suction dredgers).