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Space – relatively empty parts of the universe, located outside the atmosphere of the celestial bodies.
Contrary to the prevailing opinion, space is not completely empty, it has a very low density of matter. Mostly it is a hydrogen atom in the atomic, molecular or ionized state), there are also other simple gases (Helium, Nitrogen, Oxygen), solid particles of dust containing mainly Carbon, and by microwave spectroscopy, several dozens of different molecules have been detected. At the same time, space is filled with electromagnetic radiation, in particular, the relic radiation that was left after the Big Bang, and the cosmic rays that contain ionized atomic nuclei and different subatomic particles.
There is no clear boundary between the earth’s atmosphere and the cosmos, as the atmosphere increases with increasing height gradually. If the temperature was constant, then the pressure would change according to the exponential law from 100 KPa at sea level to zero. The International Federation of Aeronautics (IFA) has set a working limit between the atmosphere and space at a height of 100 km (Karman Line). In the United States, astronauts are considered to be at a height of over 50 miles (~ 80 km).
Space is divided into such areas that have different properties:
Along with this, there is a conditional separation of space from the Earth at distances from: