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The phone is a type of telecommunication that allows you to transmit and receive broadcasting at a distance by means of electrical signals (transmitted by wires) or radio signals.
The invention of the phone is the result of the work of many people and its authorship cannot be attributed to one specific person.
The first prototype of the modern phone was patented in 1876 by the American inventor Alexander Bell. Bell’s tube served a transmission and reception of sound. It did not have a call function, and the call of the subscriber was through the handset with a whistle. The range of this device did not exceed 500 meters. For the lead in the invention of the phone, in addition to Bell, claimed about three dozen scientists, including McDonato, Edison, Gray, Dolber, Blake, Irvine, and Felker. This led to a series of litigation in the United States, which only confirmed the collective nature of the invention, recognizing the superiority of the various inventors for individual items.
In 1877 the inventor Wadow used a telegraph key to call the subscriber. In the same year, the German company Siemens and Halske began to manufacture telephone sets with two telephone tubes – one for reception, the other – for the transmission of speech.
Thomas Edison invented a carbon mic, which worked almost unchanged until 1980.
The history of the further phone development includes the invention of an electric microphone, which replaced the coal, loudspeaker, tone dialing, digital compression of sound, new telecommunication technologies (IP telephony, ISDN, DSL, cellular communications, DECT).
In general, the phone is a mechanism that has the ability to transmit sound over a long distance. The very first phones were mechanical devices based on sound transmission using air or other physical means, as opposed to electrical devices that based on electromagnetic signals.
According to a letter from the Peking Gazette, in 968 Chinese inventors of Kung Fu-Wing invented the thumtsein, which allegedly transmitted the language through the pipes. Conversations through pipes are used today.
The rope phone was also known for centuries, connecting two diaphragms with a rope or with a wire that transmits sound from one end to another by rope vibrations.