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The dogs are pets, one of the most common (along with the cat) companion animals.
Initially, the domestic dog was isolated into a separate biological species (lat. Canis familiaris) by Linnaeus in 1758, in 1993 it was reclassified by the Smithsonian Institution and the American Association of Theriologists into a subspecies wolf (Canis lupus).
From the zoological point of view, the dog is a placental mammal of the order of the predatory family of canids.
The dog is known for its ability to learn, love of the game, social behavior. Special breeds of dogs have been developed, intended for various purposes: hunting, guarding, traction of horse-drawn vehicles and other, as well as decorative breeds (for example, lapdog, poodle).
Cubs dogs are called puppies.
There are several hypotheses of the origin of the dog, the wolf and some species of jackals are considered the most likely to be its ancestors.
In the judgments of scientists about the ancestors of the domestic dog there are two points of view. Some believe that dogs are a polyphyletic group (derived from several ancestors), others hold the opinion that all dogs are descended from one ancestor (monophyletic theory).